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Cách dùng từ "by" tiếng anh

· Ngữ Pháp

I. Giới thiệu chung

IELTS TUTOR lưu ý:

  • By được dùng như:
    1. Giới từ (+ noun): IELTS TUTOR xét ví dụ: The building was destroyed by fire.
    2. Trạng từ (đứng 1 mình, không + noun): IELTS TUTOR xét ví dụ: As time went by, things improved.

II. Cách dùng

1. By dùng như giới từ (preposition)

1.1. Dùng khi chỉ ai đó làm gì

(used for saying who or what does something)

1.1.1. Dùng ở bị động

used, especially with passive verbs, for showing who does something or what causes something

IELTS TUTOR xét ví dụ:

  • Injured refugees were treated by a Red Cross doctor. 
  • The abbey was founded by Henry II in 1170. 
  • Children are fascinated by the idea of magic. 
  • a rebellion by separatist guerrilla forces damage caused by the storm

1.1.2. Chỉ ai là tác giả của cái gì

used for saying who wrote a book or a piece of music, who painted a picture etc

IELTS TUTOR xét ví dụ:

    • a novel by Graham Greene 
    • mural paintings by Diego Rivera

    1.2. Diễn tả "theo cách, bằng cách"

    used for saying how something is done

    1.2.1. Diễn tả "phương cách làm gì"

    =using a particular method to achieve something

    IELTS TUTOR lưu ý:

    • by post/phone/fax etc: 
    • by doing sth

    IELTS TUTOR xét ví dụ:

    • Reading is taught by traditional methods here. 
    • The palace balcony is shielded by bulletproof glass. 
    • Every bit of lace is made by hand (=not using a machine). 
    • By using the Internet you can do your shopping from home. 
    • I’m going to start off by explaining the purpose of our campaign.

    1.2.2. Bằng phương tiện

    using a particular method of transport

    IELTS TUTOR lưu ý:

    • by car/train/bus/air etc:

    IELTS TUTOR xét ví dụ:

    • They exchanged New Year’s greetings by email.
    • Sophie’s parents arrived by taxi.

    1.2.3. Bằng con đường

    using a particular road, path, door etc

    IELTS TUTOR xét ví dụ:

      • We returned home by a different route. 
      • She went in by the side entrance.

      1.2.4. Bằng cách gọi tên

      using a particular name or title

      IELTS TUTOR xét ví dụ:

        • Staff generally address each other by their first name. 
        • The UN refugee agency is known by its initials UNHCR.

        1.3. Mang nghĩa "trước mốc thời gian"

        before or until

        IELTS TUTOR lưu ý:

        • by the time (that)

        IELTS TUTOR xét ví dụ:

        • The meeting should have finished by 4.30. 
        • Application forms must be received by 31st March.
        • By mid afternoon over 5,000 people had visited the exhibition. 
        • By the time Charlotte was 15, she had already achieved worldwide fame.

        1.4. Chỉ sự vô tình, tình cờ

        used when saying that something happens in a way that was not planned or intended

        IELTS TUTOR xét ví dụ:

        • Take care that you don’t shoot one of us by mistake. 
        • We met quite by chance. 
        • By a stroke of luck I found the perfect title for my new book.

        2. By dùng như trạng từ (adv)

        Mang nghĩa "để qua 1 bên, tạt qua"

        used for saying that time passes, or how it passes

        IELTS TUTOR xét ví dụ:

        • As time went by, people’s attitudes changed. 
        • The days seem to fly by.
        • nobody was by (IELTS TUTOR giải thích: không có ai ở gần)
        • to hurry by (IELTS TUTOR giải thích: đi vội qua)
        • to put (lay , set ) something by (IELTS TUTOR giải thích: để cái gì sang một bên; để dành cái gì)

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